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Posture, etiology of a syndrome

Paolo Platania
Posturology guidelines and
interdisciplinary case study

The backstage
Case study bibliography


  1. Mateika JH, Millrood DL, Kim J, Rodriguez HP, Samara GJ. (1999): Response of human tongue protrudor and retractors to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 160:1976-82
  2. Megirian D, Hinrichsen CF, Sherrey JH. (1985): Respiratory roles of genioglossus, sternothyroid, and sternohyoid muscles during sleep. Exp Neurol. 90:118-28
  3. Parisi RA, Neubauer JA, Frank MM, Edelman NH, Santiago TV. (1987): Correlation between genioglossal and diaphragmatic responses to hypercapnia during sleep. Am Rev Respir Dis. 135:378-82
  4. Kuna ST, Smickley J. (1988): Response of genioglossus muscle activity to nasal airway occlusion in normal sleeping adults. J Appl Physiol. 64:347-53
  5. Leiter JC, Daubenspeck JA. (1990): Selective reflex activation of the genioglossus in humans. J Appl Physiol. 68:2581-7
  6. M. Murat Özbek, Keisuke Miyamoto, Alan A. Lowe, John A. Fleetham. (1998): Natural head posture, upper airway morphology and obstructive sleep apnoea severity in adults. European Journal of Orthodontics 20:133-143
  7. Fregosi RF, Fuller DD. (1997): Respiratory-related control of extrinsic tongue muscle activity. Respir Physiol. 110:295-306
  8. Fuller DD, Williams JS, Janssen PL, Fregosi RF. (1999): Effect of co-activation of tongue protrudor and retractor muscles on tongue movements and pharyngeal airflow mechanics in the rat. J Physiol. 2:601-13
  9. Wilson JR, Sumner AJ, Eichelman J. (1994): Aberrant reinnervation following hypoglossal nerve damage. Muscle Nerve. 178:931-5
  10. Ney T, Goz G. (1993) Force-moment measurements on the passive palatal arch under the influence of the tongue. Fortschr Kieferorthop. 546:249-54
  11. Thuer U, Sieber R, Ingervall B. (1999) Cheek and tongue pressures in the molar areas and the atmospheric pressure in the palatal vault in young adults. Eur J Orthod.21:299-309
  12. Frohlich K, Thuer U, Ingervall B. (1991) Pressure from the tongue on the teeth in young adults. Angle Orthod. 61:17-24
  13. Saboisky JP, Butler JE, Fogel RB, Taylor JL, Trinder JA, White DP, Gandevia SC. (2006): Tonic and phasic respiratory drives to human genioglossus motoneurons during breathing. J Neurophysiol. 95:2213-21
  14. Penzel T, Moller M, Becker HF, Knaack L, Peter JH. (2001): Effect of sleep position and sleep stage on the collapsibility of the upper airways in patients with sleep apnea. Sleep. 24:90-5
  15. Neill AM, Angus SM, Sajkov D, McEvoy RD. (1997): Effects of sleep posture on upper airway stability in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 155:199-204
  16. Amis TC, O'Neill N, Wheatley JR. (1999): Oral airway flow dynamics in healthy humans. J Physiol. 515:293-8
  17. Andrew L. Carney, Evelyn M. Anderson. (1981): Hypoglossal Carotid Entrapment Syndrome. Adv Neurol. 30:223-47
  18. Eikermann M, Vogt FM, Herbstreit F, Vahid-Dastgerdi M, Zenge MO, Ochterbeck C, de Greiff A, Peters J. (2007): The predisposition to inspiratory upper airway collapse during partial neuromuscular blockade. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 175:9-15
  19. Bademci G, Batay F, Yasargil MG. (2006): "Triple cross"; of the hypoglossal nerve and its microsurgical impact to entrapment disorders. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 49:234-7
  20. Bademci G, Yasargil MG. (2006): Microsurgical anatomy of the hypoglossal nerve. J Clin Neurosci. 13:841-7
  21. Ho AM, Chung DC, Karmakar MK, Gomersall CD, Peng Z, Tay BA. (2006): Dynamic airflow limitation after topical anaesthesia of the upper airway. Anaesth Intensive Care. 34:211-5
  22. Liistro G, Stănescu DC, Veriter C, Rodenstein DO, D'Odemont JP. (1992): Upper airway anesthesia induces airflow limitation in awake humans. Am Rev Respir Dis. 146:581-5
  23. DeWeese EL, Sullivan TY. (1988): Effects of upper airway anesthesia on pharyngeal patency during sleep. J Appl Physiol. 64:1346-53
  24. Koo BB, Dostal J, Ioachimescu O, Budur K. (2007): The effects of gender and age on REM-related sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep Breath. ahead of print
  25. Pompeiano O. (1975): The control of posture and movements during REM sleep: neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms. Acta Astronaut. 2:225-39

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Posture, etiology of a syndrome - ©2008 Paolo Platania